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Hope and Well-Being in Asian Societies

     The important role of positive goal-directed cognitions in the well-being of individuals has been well documented in the psychology research literature. Locus-of-hope theory (Bernardo, 2010) has been proposed as an extension of traditional hope theories in psychology and it emphasizes the conjoint forms of agency towards goal pursuit, or the role of significant others (family and peers) as well as of supernatural forces in attaining one’s goals. This research program investigates the role of internal and external locus-of-hope dimensions in well-being in different populations (e.g., students, teachers, workers, victims of intimate partner violence, etc.) and how hope interacts with other positive character strengths. The theoretical aspects of this research program seek to clarify the structure of the antecedents, interactive processes, and limitations of the different locus-of-hope dimensions across cultures. The practical aspects of the program seek to develop more varied hope-related interventions (as exemplars of low-intensity positive psychology interventions) for different populations. 

Please visit the website of the Psychology of Hope and Well-Being Lab at DLSU (HopeLab@DLSU):


Bernardo, A. B. I., Daganzo, M. A., & Burgos, J. F. C. (2022). Heritage culture detachment predicts hope and well-being of Filipino migrant workers: A study of low- and semi-skilled Filipino workers in Macau. Psychological Studies. 

Bernardo, A. B. I., Nob, R. M., & Cunanan, A. L. P. (2022). Creating a short form of the Locus-of-Hope Scale: Validation for use with students in the Philippines. Journal of Psychological and Educational Research, 30(1), 64-84.

Ramos, S. D. A., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2022). Unboxing the therapeutic community for addiction: A locus-of-hope theory perspective. Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, 43(1). 51-64.

Zhang X., Wang Z., Du H., Sun S., Liao X., Bernardo, A. B. I., Zou R., & Cheng R. (2022). Validity and reliability of the Locus of Hope Scale in medical staff. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 36(4), 337-343. (in Chinese: 希望源量表测评医务人员的 效度和信度.中国心理卫生杂志).


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Mendoza, N. B. (2020). Measuring hope during the COVID-19 outbreak in the Philippines: Development and validation of the State Locus-of-Hope Scale Short Form in Filipino. Current Psychology.


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Sit, H. Y. (2020). Hope interventions for students: Integrating cultural perspectives. In G. A. D. Liem & D. M. McInerney (Eds.). Sociocultural perspectives on educational interventions: Promoting motivation and learning in contexts (pp.281-302). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Datu, J. A. D., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2020). The blessings of social-oriented virtues: Interpersonal character strengths are associated with increased wellbeing and academic success among Filipino high school students. Social Psychological and Personality Science


Bernardo, A. B. I., Clemente, J. A. R., & Wang, T. Y. (2018). Working for a better future: Social mobility beliefs and expectations of Filipino migrant workers in Macau. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70, 350-360.


Bernardo, A. B. I., Daganzo, M. A. A., & Ocampo, A. C. G. (2018). Abusive supervision and well-being of Filipino migrant workers in Macau: Consequences for self-esteem and heritage culture detachment. Social Indicators Research, 139, 277-292. 


Bernardo A. B. I.,Khan, A., & Salanga, M. G. C. (2018). Hope and satisfaction with life: Testing the mediating roles of self-esteem in three Asian cultures. Acción Psicológica, 15(2), 69-82.  


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Resurreccion, K. F. (2018). Financial stress and well-being of Filipino students: The moderating role of external locus-of-hope. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 51(1), 33-61.


Bernardo, A. B. I.,Tan-Mansukhani, R., Daganzo, M. A. A. (2018). Associations between materialism, gratitude, and well-being in children of overseas Filipino workers. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 14(3), 581-598.


Bernardo, A. B. I.,Yeung, S. S., Resurreccion, K. F., Resurreccion, R. R., & Khan, A.  (2018). External locus-of-hope, well-being, and coping of students: A cross-cultural investigation within Asia. Psychology in the Schools. 55, 908-923.


Datu, J. A.,Bernardo, A. B. I.,& King, R. B. (2018). Positive psychology research in the Philippines: An introduction. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 51(1), 21-32. 


Hu, Q., Bernardo, A. B. I., Lam, S. W., & Cheang, P. K. (2018). Individualism-collectivism orientations and coping styles of cyberbullying victims in Chinese culture. Current Psychology, 37, 65-72.


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Estrellado, A. F. (2017). Locus-of-hope and help-seeking intentions of Filipino battered women victims of intimate partner violence. Current Psychology, 36, 66-75.


Bernardo, A.B. I., & Estrellado, A. F. (2017). Well-being of Filipino women who experienced intimate partner violence: A person-centered analysis. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 39, 360-376.


Bernardo, A.B. I., Wang, T. Y., Pesigan, I. J. A., & Yeung, S. S. (2017). Pathways from collectivist coping to life satisfaction among Chinese: The roles of locus-of-hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 253-256.


Chan, H. K., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2017). Measuring depression, anxiety, and stress in Macau university students. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 9, e12275.


Nalipay, M. J. N., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Mordeno, I. G. (2017). Posttraumatic growth in survivors of a natural disaster: The role of the social axioms of religiosity, reward for application, and social cynicism. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12, 342-353.


Wang, T. W.,Bernardo, A. B. I., & Yeung, S. S. (2017). Hope and coping in collectivist societies: Contributions to life satisfaction among Chinese university students. In M. C. Gastardo-Conaco, M. E. J. Macapagal, & Y, Muramoto (Eds.), Asian psychology and Asian societies in the midst of change (pp. 59-80) Quezon City, Philippines: Psychological Association of the Philippines.  


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Nalipay, M. J. N. (2016). Social axioms as social foundations of locus-of-hope: A study in three Asian cultural groups. Personality and Individual Differences, 95, 110-113. 


Bernardo, A. B. I., Salanga, M. G. C., Khan, A., & Yeung, S. S. (2016). Internal and external loci-of-hope predict use of individual and collaborative learning strategies: Evidence from university learners in four Asian cities. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25, 367-376. 


Dong, Y. T.,Bernardo, A. B. I., & Zaroff, C. M. (2016).Stress, positive psychological resources, and mental health of migrant Chinese postgraduate students in Macau. In R.B. King & A.B.I. Bernardo (Eds), The psychology of Asian learners: A Festschrift in honor of David

Watkins (pp. 471-484). Singapore: Springer.


Nalipay, M. J. N., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Mordeno, I. G. (2016). Social complexity beliefs predict posttraumatic growth in survivors of a natural disaster. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 8, 559-567.


Briones, Z. M. M., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2016). Hope in adolescents with end-stage renal disease: Implications for counseling. In A. B. I. Bernardo (Ed.), Counseling, psychology, and education: A Festschrift in honor of Rose Marie Salazar-Clemena (pp. 128-148). Manila: De La Salle University Publishing House.


Bernardo, A.B. I.(2015). Hope in early adolescence: Measuring internal and external locus-of-hope. Child Indicators Research, 8, 699-715.


Du, H., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Yeung, S. S. (2015). Locus-of-hope and life satisfaction: The mediating roles of personal self-esteem and relational self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 228-233.


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Estrellado, A. F. (2014). Measuring hope in the Philippines: Validating the short version of the Locus-of-Hope Scale in Filipino. Social Indicators Research, 119, 1649-1661.


Bernardo, A.B. I. (2013). Hope grounded in belief: Influences of reward for application and social cynicism on dispositional hope.  Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54, 522-528.


Kintanar, N. S. M., & Bernardo, A. B. I.  (2013).  Hope and internal work models of the self and others: A correlational study on Filipino adolescents. Psychological Studies, 58, 48-53.


Bernardo, A. B. I.(2010). Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope.  Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 944-949.

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