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Sociocultural Aspects of Motivation, Learning, and Achievement

     There is a growing understanding that a one-size-fits-all approach to education does not work and that we need to understand the sociocultural dimensions of learning and achievement. For over two decades now, this research program has inquired into how language, cultural values, beliefs, and cultural meaning system relate to students’ motivations, sense of self, academic emotions, learning processes, and achievement. This research program has adopted both emic approaches (qualitative studies inquiring into how students construct and give meaning to their learning motivations, lack of motivation, achievement, and emotional experiences related to learning) and etic approaches (quantitative studies using culturally-informed theorizing about motivation, beliefs, values, and achievement) to study the sociocultural aspects of Filipino students learning and achievement. The theoretical aspects of this research program seek to develop a more nuanced understanding of how cultural and societal processes constrain learning and educational processes and outcomes. The practical aspects of the program seek provide guidance to appropriate educational interventions. 


David, A. P., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (in press). Social axioms and domain-specific perceived academic control: A study of Filipino students. The Educational and Developmental Psychologist.

Datu, J. A. D., & Bernardo, A. B. I. (2020). The blessings of social-oriented virtues: Interpersonal character strengths are associated with increased wellbeing and academic success among Filipino high school students. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 

Ku, L., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Zaroff, C. M. (2020). Are higher-order life values antecedents of students’ learning engagement and adaptive learning outcomes? The case of materialistic vs. intrinsic life values. Current Psychology.

Bernardo, A. B. I.(2019). Sociocultural dimensions of student motivation: Research approaches and insights from the Philippines. G. A. D. Liem & S. H. Tan (Eds.), Asian education miracles: In search of sociocultural and psychological explanations (pp. 139-154). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Bernardo, A. B. I.,Begeny, J. C., Brown-Earle, O., Ginns, D. O., Grazioso, M. D. P., Soriano-Ferrer, M. Suzuki, H., & Zapata, R. (2018). Internationalization within school and educational psychology: Perspectives about positive indicators, critical considerations, and needs. Psychology in the Schools, 55, 982-992.


Bernardo, A.B. I.,& King, R. B. (2016). Asian learners: Retrospect and prospect. In R.B. King & A.B.I. Bernardo (Eds), The psychology of Asian learners: A Festschrift in honor of David Watkins (pp. 653-664). Singapore: Springer.


Ganotice, F. A., Lising, R. L. S., Nieva, A. M., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2016). Variations in Filipino college students’ achievement goals in different types of college subjects. In A. B. I. Bernardo (Ed.), Counseling, psychology, and education: A Festschrift in honor of Rose Marie Salazar-Clemena (pp. 253-268). Manila: De La Salle University Publishing House.


Lucas, R. I. G., Bernardo, A. B. I.,Rojo-Laurilla, M. (2016). Reasons for amotivation in Filipino ESL learners: Exploring some correlates. Porta Linguarum, 26, 109-119. 


Salanga, M. G. C., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2016). Filipino students’ reasons for not being motivated in school: Insights into their implicit beliefs about motivation and learning. In R.B. King & A.B.I. Bernardo (Eds.), The psychology of Asian learners: A Festschrift in honor of David Watkins (pp. 85-98). Singapore: Springer.


Villavicencio, F. T., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2016). Beyond math anxiety: Positive emotions predict mathematics achievement, self-regulation and self-efficacy. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25, 415-422.


Bernardo, A. B. I.,Ganotice, F. A., & King, R. B. (2015). Motivation gap and achievement gap between public and private high schools in the Philippines. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(4), 657-667.


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Liem, G. A. D. (2013).  Mapping the spaces of cross-cultural educational psychology. In G.A.D. Liem, & A.B.I. Bernardo (Eds.), Advancing cross-cultural perspectives on educational psychology: A Festschrift for Dennis M. McInerney (pp. 345-357). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publications.


Bernardo, A. B. I.,& Ouano, J. A. (2013).  Social goals, sense of community and disconnectedness in school: An exploratory study of three ethnoreligious groups in the Philippines.  In G.A.D. Liem, & A.B.I. Bernardo (Eds.), Advancing cross-cultural perspectives on educational psychology: A Festschrift for Dennis M. McInerney (pp. 231-251). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publications.  

Dela Rosa, E. D., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2013). Are two achievement goals better than one? Filipino students’ achievement goals, deep learning strategies and affect. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 97-101.

Dela Rosa, E. D., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2013).  Testing multiple goals theory in an Asian context: Filipino university students’ motivation and academic achievement.  International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 1, 47-57.

Ganotice, F. A., Bernardo, A. B. I., & King, R. B. (2013). Adapting the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ) for bilingual Filipino adolescents: Validating English and Filipino versions. Child Indicators Research, 6, 237-256.

Macugay, E. B., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2013). Science coursework and pedagogical beliefs of science teachers: The case of science teachers in the Philippines. Science Education International, 24(1), 31-45.  


Villavicencio, F. T., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2013). Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and achievement.  British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 329-340. 

Villavicencio, F. T., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2013).  Negative emotions moderate the relationship between self-efficacy and achievement of Filipino students. Psychological Studies, 58, 225-232.

Bernardo, A. B. I.(2012). Perceived legitimacy of parental control over academic behaviors and students’ academic adjustment. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 27, 557-571.

Bernardo, A. B. I. (2012).  Talking about good and bad learners: Linguistic dimensions of implicit theories of intelligence. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 10,195-212.

Del Rosario, R. M., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2012).  Personal epistemologies and motivation in schools: The relationship between students’ epistemological beliefs and intrinsic motivation in learning. Soonchunhyang Journal of Humanities, 31, 277-307. 


Ganotice, F. A., Bernardo, A. B. I.,& King, R. B. (2012). Testing the factorial invariance of the English and Filipino versions of the Inventory of School Motivation with bilingual students in the Philippines. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30, 298-303.


Bernardo, A. B. I. (2010).  Exploring Filipino adolescents’ perceptions of the legitimacy of parental authority over academic behaviors. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31, 271-280.


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Ismail, R. (2010).  Social perceptions of achieving students and achievement goals of students in Malaysia and the Philippines.  Social Psychology of Education, 13, 385-407.


Bernardo, A. B. I., & Kintanar, N. S. M. (2010).  Exploring Filipino school counselors’ beliefs about learning.  Philippine Journal of Counseling Psychology, 12,1-12.  


Ganotice, F., & Bernardo, A. B. I.  (2010). Validating the factor structures of the English and Filipino versions Sense of Self Scales. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 43, 81-99. 


Liem, G. A. D., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2010).  Epistemological beliefs and theory of planned behavior: Examining beliefs about knowledge and knowing as distal predictors of Indonesian tertiary students’ intention to study.  The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 19, 127-142. 


Bernardo, A. B. I. (2009). Exploring the links between social axioms and the epistemological beliefs held by Filipino students.  In K. Leung & M. H. Bond (Eds.), Psychological aspects of social axioms: Understanding global belief systems (pp. 163-175). New York: Springer Science.


Bernardo, A. B. I.(2009). Filipino students’ reported parental socialization of academic achievement by socioeconomic groups.  Psychological Reports, 105, 427-436.


Bernardo, A. B. I., Ouano, J. A., & Salanga, M. G. C. (2009).  What is an academic emotion? Insights from Filipino bilingual students’ emotion words associated with learning. Psychological Studies, 54, 34-42.


Liem, G. A. D., Martin, A. J., Nair, E., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Prasetya, P. H. (2009). Cultural factors relevant to secondary students in Australia, Singapore, Philippines and Indonesia: Relative differences and congruencies. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling [now The Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools], 19, 161-178.


Bernardo, A. B. I. (2008).  Exploring epistemological beliefs of bilingual Filipino preservice teachers in the Filipino and English languages. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 142, 193-208.

Bernardo, A. B. I. (2008). Individual and social dimensions of Filipino students’ achievement goals.  International Journal of Psychology, 43, 886-891.


Bernardo, A. B. I.,Limjap, A. A., Prudente, M. S., & Roleda, L. S. (2008). Student perceptions of science classes in the Philippines.  Asia-Pacific Education Review, 9, 285-295.


Bernardo, A. B. I.,Salanga, M. G. C., & Aguas, K. M. C. (2008). Filipino adolescent students’ conceptions of learning goals. In O. S. Tan, D. M. McInerney, A. D. Liem, & A.-G. Tan (Eds.), What the West can learn from the East: Asian perspectives on the psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 169-190). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. 


Clores, M. A., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2008). Case studies on the interaction between students’ understanding and belief in learning the theory of evolution. Kawomotan, 2, 13-28.


Liem, A. D., Nair, E., Bernardo, A. B. I.,& Prasetya, P. H. (2008). In the students’ own words: Etic and emic conceptual analyses of why and how student learn. In O. S. Tan, D. M. McInerney, A. D. Liem & A.-G. Tan (Eds.), What the West can learn from the East: Asian perspectives on the psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 137-167). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press. 


Liem, A. D., Nair, E., Bernardo, A. B. I.,& Prasetya, P. H. (2008). The influence of culture on students’ classroom social interactions. Implications for best teaching and learning practice in multicultural and international education. In D. M. McInerney & A. D. Liem (Eds.), Teaching and learning: International best practice (pp. 377-404).  Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing. 


Bernardo, A. B. I.(2005). Exploring new areas for helping low-achieving students in the Philippines: Beliefs, goals, and strategies. In A.D. Thomas, N. Dayan, A.B.I. Bernardo, & R. Roth (Eds.), Helping others grow (pp. 133-142). Aachen, Germany: Shaker Verlag.


Bernardo, A. B. I.(2004). Culturally-rooted beliefs and learning: Exploring the relationships among social axioms, achievement goals, and learning strategies of Filipino college students. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 37(2), 79-100. 

Bernardo, A. B. I.(2003). Approaches to learning and academic achievement among Filipino students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 164, 101-114. 

Bernardo, A. B. I.(2003). Do Filipino youth really value education? Exploring Filipino adolescents’ beliefs about the abstract and pragmatic value of education and its relationship to achievement goals and learning strategies. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 49-67. 


Bernardo, A. B. I.,Zhang, L.-F., & Callueng, C. M. (2002). Thinking styles and academic achievement among Filipino students. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 163, 149-163.


Bernardo, A. B. I.(2001). Do Asians and Americans think differently? Thinking styles among Filipino, Hong Kong, and American College students. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 34(2), 27-43.

Zhang, L.-F., & Bernardo, A. B. I.(2000). Validity of the Learning Process Questionnaire with students of lower academic attainment. Psychological Reports, 87, 284-290.

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